Oxidation is a chemical process which can be explained by following four point of views:
-Oxidation is gain of oxygen or any electronegative radical.
-Oxidation is loss of electrons. (i.e., increase in charge, decrease in charge).
-In the above example magnesium is losing two electrons and getting oxidized to form magnesium oxide.
-Oxidation can be defined as loss of hydrogen.
-Oxidation is an increase in the oxidation state or oxidation number of an atom in a reaction.
-Oxidation number defines the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound.
-In the above example, the oxidation state of sodium is increasing from . Thus, oxidation is taking place and sodium is getting oxidized.
Reduction is a chemical process which can be explained by following four point of views :
-Reduction is loss of oxygen.
-In the above example, each atom of oxygen gains two electrons and forms two anions. Thus, reduction takes place and oxygen gets reduced.
-Reduction is gain of electrons. (i.e. increase in charge, decrease in charge)
-Reduction can be defined as gain of hydrogen or any electropositive radical or removal of oxygen or any electronegative radical.
-Reduction is decrease in the oxidation state or oxidation number of an atom in a reaction.
-In the above example oxidation state of chlorine is decreasing from . Thus, reduction is taking place and chlorine is getting reduced.
c) Higher oxidation state of metals:
d)Non-metal oxides of higher oxidation states:
a) Hydrogen Supplier:
b) Electropositive elements:
c) Lower oxidation states of metals:
Rule for determining oxidation number:
i) in peroxides
ii) in super oxide
iii) in ozonides
The oxidation half-reaction can be written as:
The reduction half-reaction can be written as:
-Reactions in which a single reactant is oxidized and reduced.
Balancing Redox Reaction:
-There are two ways of balancing the redox reaction. One method is by using the change in oxidation number of oxidizing agent and the reducing agent and the other method is based on dividing the redox reaction into two half reactions-one of reduction and other oxidation.
Example 1: Write the balanced redox equation when ferrous sulphate is treated with acidified and
Here, in reactant is reduced to in product.
Some Important Points: