Chemistry

# Mass Percentage:

-The mass percentage of a component in a given solution is the mass of the component per gm of the solution.

-For e.g. If  is the mass of the component ,  is the mass of the component in a solution. Then, Mass percentage of in a solution =

# Volume Percentage:

-This unit is used in case of a liquid dissolved in another liquid.

-The volume percentage is defined as the volume of the solute per parts by volume of solution.

-For e.g. If  is the volume of component A present is  volume of the solution. Then, Volume percentage of in the solution =

# Strength of Solution:

-Strength of a solution is defined as the amount of the solute in gm, present in one litre of the solution.

-It is expressed as .

-Mathematically,

# Molarity:

• Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved per litre of solution.
• Molarity is expressed by the symbol .
• Mathematically,

Or,

• It can also be expressed as,

# Normality:

• Normality of a solution is defined as the number of gram equivalents of a solute dissolved per litre of the given solution.
• Normality is expressed by the symbol .
• Mathematically,

Or,

• It can also be expressed as,

# Molality:

• Molality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in of a solvent.
• Molality is expressed by the symbol .
• Molality does not change with temperature.
• Mathematically,

# Formality:

• It is the number of gram formula masses of solute dissolved per litre of the solution.
• It is denoted by the symbol .
• In case of ionic compounds like  etc Formality is used in place of Molarity.
• Mathematically,

# Mole Fraction:

• It is the ratio of number of moles of one component (solute or solvent) to the total number of moles of all the components (solute and solvent) present in the solution.
• It is denoted by the symbol .
• Let us suppose that a solution contains two components and and suppose that  moles of and moles of are present in the solution then,

Mole fraction of ;

Mole fraction of ;

# Relationship on Volumetric Analysis:

## 1) Substance reacts by gm. equivalent:

-If substance reacts completely with then,

or,

## 4) Mixing no. of acid or alkali solution:

• Final Normality,

## 5) Mixing of acid solution with alkali solution:

• If , solution is neutral.
• If , solution is acidic.
• If , solution is basic.
• For acid excess, final normality,

; a= acid and b= base.

• For base excess, final normality,

; a= acid and b= base.