-The process of determining strength or concentration of unknown solution by the help of standard solution in presence or absence of indicator.
-Strength of oxidizing agent is determined by standard reducing agent or vice versa.
is oxidizing agent and is reducing agent.
-Concentration of an acid is determined by standard alkali or vice versa.
-An acid – base titration is usually of four types and each sets definite criteria for selection of indicators.
-In this type of reaction, there is a sharp change in pH around neutralization point.
-The pH of this point varies from .
-Thus, a indicator of range can be used.
- Both phenolphthalein and Methyl orange can be used.
-In this type of titration the equivalent point lies on the pH range of .
-Acidic indicator can be used like Methyl orange.
-The titration has equivalent point in the pH range of .
-Basic indicator like phenolphthalein may be used.
-There is no sharp change in pH, accurate measurement of end point in this case is not shown by indicators.
-Those titration in which precipitate is formed as a result of reaction between the reacting solution.
-Those titration in which standard iodine solution is used for titration.
-Those titration in which the liberated iodine from is titrated with sodium thiosulphate solution are called iodometric titration.
-The solution of known concentration used in a titration which is generally taken in burette.
-The solution of unknown concentration used in titration which is generally taken in titration flask by using pipette.
-The process of determining the strength of acid by titrating with standard solution of alkaline solution.
-The process of determining the strength of base by titrating with standard solution of alkali solution.
-The point at which reaction completes as indicated by change in colour of indicator.
-It is the practical point.
-The point at which equivalent amount of titrant is neutralized by the titrand.
-Theoretical end is known as equivalence point.
-The difference between end point and equivalence point.
-The chemical substance which indicates the completion of reaction by changing it's colour.
-Example: phenolphthalein, methyl orange, litmus paper, methyl red, etc.
Ratio of practical weight to theoretical weight.