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-The process of determining strength or concentration of unknown solution by the help of standard solution in presence or absence of indicator.

Types of Titration:

1) Redox titration:

-Strength of oxidizing agent is determined by standard reducing agent or vice versa.



is oxidizing agent and is reducing agent.

is self-indicator.

2) Acid-Base Titration:

-Concentration of an acid is determined by standard alkali or vice versa.

-An acid – base titration is usually of four types and each sets definite criteria for selection of indicators.

i) Titration involving strong acid and strong base:

-In this type of reaction, there is a sharp change in pH around neutralization point.

-The pH of this point varies from .

-Thus, a indicator of range can be used.

- Both phenolphthalein and Methyl orange can be used.

ii) Titration involving strong acid and weak base:

-In this type of titration the equivalent point lies on the pH range of .

-Acidic indicator can be used like Methyl orange.

iii) Titration involving strong base and weak acid:

-The titration has equivalent point in the pH range of .

-Basic indicator like phenolphthalein may be used. 

iv) Titration involving weak acids and weak base:

-There is no sharp change in pH, accurate measurement of end point in this case is not shown by indicators.

3) Precipitation Titration:

-Those titration in which precipitate is formed as a result of reaction between the reacting solution.

4) Iodometric and Iodimetric Titration:

Iodimetric Titration:

-Those titration in which standard iodine solution is used for titration.

Iodometric titration:

-Those titration in which the liberated iodine from is titrated with sodium thiosulphate solution are called iodometric titration.


Terms Used in Titration:


-The solution of known concentration used in a titration which is generally taken in burette.


-The solution of unknown concentration used in titration which is generally taken in titration flask by using pipette.


-The process of determining the strength of acid by titrating with standard solution of alkaline solution.


-The process of determining the strength of base by titrating with standard solution of alkali solution.

End Point:

-The point at which reaction completes as indicated by change in colour of indicator.

-It is the practical point.

Equivalence Point:

-The point at which equivalent amount of titrant is neutralized by the titrand.

-Theoretical end is known as equivalence point.

Titration Error:

-The difference between end point and equivalence point.


-The chemical substance which indicates the completion of reaction by changing it's colour.

-Example: phenolphthalein, methyl orange, litmus paper, methyl red, etc.

Normality factor:

Ratio of practical weight to theoretical weight.