1) By using non oxidizing acids:Eg:
2) Using Alkali:
Amphoteric metals such as etc can produce from alkali.
3) Using Water:
i) Alkali metal and Calcium can produce from cold water.
ii) can produce from hot water.
iii) can produce from steam.
4) By Hydrolysis of Metal hydride:
5) Electrolysis of Water:
6) Bosch Process:
By passing steam over red hot coke or coal.
i) It is form by thermal dissociation of molecular hydrogen.
i.e By passing gas through electric arc.
ii) It is Highly unstable.
iii) It is stronger reducing agent than nascent hydrogen.
iv) Formation of molecular hydrogen from atomic hydrogen is an exothermic process.
iv) Formation of atomic hydrogen from molecular hydrogen is an endothermic process.
v) It has very short half life period.
i) Atomic form of hydrogen produced during chemical reactions.
ii) It is also unstable but less energetic than atomic hydrogen.
iii) It is powerful reducing agent than ordinary diatomic hydrogen.
-Isotopes are the different atoms of same elements which have same atomic number but different mass number.
-Binary compound of hydrogen with metals and non-mental.
-The general formula being . where M=Metal, H=Hydrogen, x=no. of H-atom.
-Hydrides of more metals than hydrogen.
Except : and ---> (Covalent)
-Thermal stability decreases with increase in size of cation.
-Hydrides of non metals.
-Oxides of non metals are acidic in nature and when dissolved in water gives acid.
Note: -Some oxides of transition metals are acidic :
-Oxides of metal are basic in nature.
-Metallic oxides which shows both acidic as well as basic properties.
-Oxides which shows neither acidic nor basic properties.
-Metallic oxides which give hydrogen peroxides with acid.
-In this oxide oxidation number of oxygen is .
-The oxidation number of oxygen in such oxide is .
-It gives hydrogen peroxide and oxygen gas on reaction with acid.
-Oxides which is the mixture of two oxides.
- Water that does not produce lather with soap.
-It is hard because of presence of soluble bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium in water.
-It produces lather with soap.
-It is due to presence of bicarbonates of Calcium and Magnesium.
i) By Boiling:
ii) By Clark’s process:
-Slaked lime is added.
-It is caused by the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.
- Permanent Hardness is also called non carbonate hardness.
-It is removed by adding washing soda.
i)By adding Chalcogen:
- It is sodium hexametaphosphate and removes and ion of hardwater as complex ion.
=Sod. Hexa metaphosphate
ii) By Permuit process:
-Sodium Zeolite is used. Sodium Zeolite is Sodium Aluminium Silicate.It is regenerated by passing solution Of .
-In this process, Sodium ion is exchanged with and .
iii) By the use of ion exchange resin:
a) Cation Exchanger:
-Organic polymer having acid group.Exchanges all cation water with ion of resin.
b) Anion Exchanger:
-Organic polymer and contains (RNH3OH). Exchanges all anion of water with ion of resin.
-Ozone is allotrope of oxygen. It dissolves in turpentine oil.
-It is prepared by subjecting silent electric discharge on pure and dry oxygen.