• Atomic Number:
  • Electronic Configuration:
  • Symbol:
  • Zinc is present in the d-block of the Periodic Table, it does not behave like other transition elements. This abnormality is due to the filled d-orbitals.
  • It has specific gravity of
  • Ores:

-Zinc blend: (Main Ore)



  • Oxidation State:
  • Forms colourless compound.

Extraction of Zinc using Zinc Blend:

-It can be extracted by two different methods:

i) Carbon reduction process

ii) Electrolyte process

-We discuss Carbon Reduction Process only.

Carbon Reduction Process:

  • Crushing and Pulverization:

-Ore is crushed by jaw crusher and pulverized( powder) using ball mills.

  • Concentration:

-As zinc blend is sulphide ore, it is concentrated by froth floatation.

-Pine oil or Eucalyptus oil acts as the frothing agent.

-The sulphide ore is deposited on surface as froth.

  • Calcination or Roasting:

-Since, it is sulphide ore, the ore is roasted i.e. heated at excess supply of air.

-During heating, some are also converted to .

-If Calamine ore was there calcination was done:


During roasting, volatile impurities are removed as oxide.

  • Reduction:

-Roasted is heated with carbon in furnace to reduce oxide to metallic form.

Different reduction process are employed. They are:

a) Vertical Retort Process

b) Belgian Process

c) Silesian Process

-As vertical retort process is economical and modern process, it is used.

Continuous Vertical Retort Process:

-In this process ZnO and Coke in ratio is taken and heated by burning Producer Gas at about .

-In this condition, Zinc oxide is reduced to zinc which vaporizes.

-The vapor of Zinc and after reduction is passed through condenser after release of volatile impurities called Spelter Zinc.

-The fresh charge is added continuously from charging door and residual waste material is taken out from bottom.

  • Purification:

-Impurities like Pb, Fe, Cd, etc are present which can be purified by:

a) Liquation:

-Zinc metal is melted on the sloping hearth of reverberatory furnance.

-Molten zinc flows down leaving non-fusible impurities.

b) Fractional Distillation:

-Distillation at separates having low boiling point than etc. having higher bpt and distillation at separates from zinc .

c) Electrolytic Refining:

  • Anode= impure zinc (spelter zinc)
  • Cathode=pure zinc
  • Electrolyte of Solution.
  • Pure zinc is deposited at cathode and impurities are left in bottom as anode mud.


  • is known as philosopher's wool.
  • is known as White Vitriol.
  • is called butter of Zinc

Chemical Properties:

  • Oxidation of air:


  • With Water:

  • With Acid:

-Displace from non-oxidizing acid.

  • With Alkali:

  • Displacement:

  • With Non-Metal:


  1. To galvanic iron
  2. To make electrodes.
  3. To make alloys such as brass, german silver, electron, etc.


-Process of coating zinc over the surface of iron in order to protect it from rusting.

-It is done by following process:

1) Cleaning of the article:- By sand blasting and dipped on dil. HCl or H2SO4 to remove any oxide film and rinsed with water.

2) Galvanization:

i) Ordinary Galvanization:

-Process in which iron steel is dipped into molten zinc for coating.

ii) Heated Galvanization:

-Process in which iron sheet is dipped into molten zinc for coating.

iii) Electro-galvanization:

-It is the method in which electroplating is performed for galvanization.

-Cathode: Iron

-Anode: Zinc



-Zinc obtained by dropping molten zinc in cold water is called granulated zinc.