Programmes/ Content/ Chemistry



  • Symbol:
  • Atomic Number:
  • Iron is the most abundant metal on Earth.
  • Electronic Configuration of
  • Density of iron is
  • Valency:
  • Electronic Configuration of
  • Electronic Configuration of
  • Ores:





-Iron Pyrite

Extraction of Cast Iron from Hematite

Crushing and Pulverization:

-Big lumps of ore are crushed with jaw crushes and pulverized with ball mill.


-The ore is then washed with cold water and concentrated by gravity separation or electromagnetic separation.

Calcination or Roasting:

- The Hematite ore is oxide ore, so it is calcinated (i.e. heated in limited supply of air.)

-Moisture is removed.

Iron Carbonate present also decomposes to .

-The is obtained from and initially present reacts with limited air to for

-This is very important step because easily combines with to form slag, which is finally lost. But, doesn't react with and iron loss is saved.


-The calcinated ore is heated on blast furnace with coke and limestone (flux).

-In this smelting process the iron oxide is reduced to metallic form.

-The blast furnace has different zones, which are: ( from bottom to top of blast furnace)

  • Zone of Combustion:

-It is lowermost zone where coke is brunt to give the highest temperature of furnace up to

  • Zone of Fusion

-It is the zone where iron and slag starts fusing. So, temperature decreases to about

  • Zone of Slag Formation

-It is middle portion of furnace where temperature reaches from (800.C-1000.C)

- is said to be flux and is added externally.

  • Zone of Reduction

-It is uppermost region where ore is reduced to metal as reducing agent.

-Temperature is about

-Thus obtained iron is called spongy iron.

-The upper zone is called zone of preparatory heating where temperature ranges from .

-In this zone moisture and other waste gases are removed.

-At the end of smelting, molten slag settles down and floats over molten ion, which absorbs Silicon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, etc.

-The Molten iron thus obtained is called pig iron.

-When pig iron is remelted, it becomes cast iron.

Commercial forms of Iron:

i) Cast or Pig iron:

-Most impure form of iron.

-It has carbon contain of with small quantities of .

-It is very hard and has low M.P of .

ii) Wrought iron:

-Most purest form of iron.

-Contains carbon in it.

-It has less than of other impurities like etc.

-It melts at and is soft and malleable.

iii) Steel:

-It has carbon content about , which traces of sulpher, phosphorous and special constituent like etc.

  • Mild Steel: Has lower of Carbon.
  • Hard Steel: Containing large of Carbon.
  • Alloy Steel: Valuable properties may be granted to steel adding other such metals such as etc. Eg: Stainless steel