• Electronic Configuration:
  • Atomic Number:
  • Symbol:
  • Copper is soft, but it is tough. It is easily mixed with other metals to form alloys such as bronze and brass
  • Specific Gravity:
  • Ores Of Copper:

-Copper pyrites:


-Copper glance:


Extraction Of Copper from Copper Pyrite

  • Crushing and Pulverization:

-Big lumps of ore are crushed with jaw crushes and pulverized with ball mill.

  • Concentration:

-As Copper pyrite is sulphur containing ore so Froth floatation process is used to increase the concentration up to where sulphide ores come to surface along with froth.

  • Calcination or roasting:

- Among these two roasting process is used because it is sulphide ore.

  • Smelting (Production of Matte):

-The roasted ore is mixed with sand and coke and smelted on blast furnace which is high and diameter, The oxidation of , which started on step 2, goes on further reaction:


-(=Copper Matte

-Matte contains about Copper.

  • Bessemerization:

-Production of metallic copper-blister from matte.

- on matte on oxidation to , finally reacts with to give slag.

-Slag is removed, is oxidized to and finally to blister copper.

-:- Blister of Copper. Contain about impurities of etc.

  • Purification:

-To remove those impurities following method may be used.

a) Poling:

-Molten blister copper is stirred by green wood poles where is released and acts as reducing agent.

-The poled/ refined copper is pure.

b) Electro-refining of Copper:

  1. Impure Copper is made anode.
  2. Pure Copper sheet is made cathode.
  3. and as electrolyte.
  4. Purity becomes
  5. Anode mud contains .


  • = Black oxide of Copper
  • = Red oxide of Copper

Manufacture of Blue Vitriol:

  • Penta hydrated copper sulphate is known as Blue Vitriol
  • By action of on Copper scarps.(large scale precipitation).

  • From the solution of , crystals are obtained by heating up to crystallization point and cooling.

  • It can be prepared on lab easily b reacting oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of Copper with and heating up to crystallization point.